Central and Latin America Database
General Horacio Vazquez was elected president of the Dominican Republic after the US occupation of 1916-1924. Vazquez’s priority was to build new armed forces, as the country’s Army had been reduced to a small police force during the occupation. By 1928 the National Army had been established, and through the Official Decree No. 904 the government provided $125,000 dollars to fund an integral air service.
A group of Army engineers and cadets were sent to Campo Colombia aviation school, in “Teniente Brihuegas” airbase, Havana, where they received the required training to form a new air arm. The main promoter of this air service was the country’s new president, General Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina, former chief of the armed forces, who created the Aviation Arm of the National Army in 1932 through Decree No.283.
In 1933 the new service received 3 Vought O2S-3D Corsair reconnaissance biplanes. The biplanes were operated by US mercenaries, which served as conversion instructors for the new staff that had been trained in Havana. An air mail service was also established using Bellanca Pacemaker, Byrd and Stinson SM-2AB Junior monoplanes and up to a dozen small airfields were constructed throughout the country.
President Trujillo created the Aviation Detachment for the National Army through General Order No.1 in January 1936. This unit was tasked with creating an international reputation for Dominican airpower. It obtained two Curtiss-Wright CW-19R fighters, using one of them for a Pan-American marathon, together with three Cuban Satinson Reliant airplanes. The promotion tour was cancelled after all three Cuban planes suffered accidents in Colombia. However, this was only the beginning of Trujillo’s ambition to put his air force at the forefront of Latin American military aviation. His ambition was as big as his vanity, and he even changed the name of the country’s capital city from Santo Domingo to Ciudad Trujillo.
By 1943 an important and modern airbase had been constructed in the outskirts of Ciudad Trujillo, just 20 km east of the city and tasked with handling both civilian and military operations. The base was inaugurated on January 22, 1944 and named “General Andrews” airbase, in honor of U.S. General Frank M. Andrews, who witnessed the ceremony. U.S. Military Assistance in the form of half a dozen AT-6 Texan advanced and a few PT-17 and BT-13 basic trainers arrived after an agreement was signed with the U.S. allowing it basing rights. The assistance was a accompanied by a U.S. Military Mission.
Exiles and Mystery Shoppers
A group of Dominican exiles living in Cuba threatened to invade the country in 1947 and overthrow the Dictator. This group developed its own air force, the Fuerza Aérea del Ejército de la Revolución Americana (FAERA), using Havana as their main operating base, from where they intended to invade Dominican Republic in June 1948. FAERA’s fleet included two Cessna T-50s, one Consolidated B-24, two PBY-5A Catalina amphibians, two C-46 Commandos, two C-47 Dakotas, one C-54 Skymaster, two Lockheed PV-1 Venturas, two B-25 Mitchells and eight P-38L Lightnings.
The Dominican government quickly started negotiations with Canada for the acquisition of 30 Mosquito bombers as well as the U.S. for sale of a powerful fleet that included 30 B-25 Mitchell light bombers, four B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers and 18 P-38 Lightning long-range fighters. Its intention to destroy the FAERA was no secret, and such an attack would had provoked a war with Cuba, so the U.S. government limited military sales to 15 PT-17 primary trainers during that period.
However, Trujillo’s agents were very successful elsewhere obtaining:
• 10 Bristol Beaufighter TF Mk.X bombers in the UK. These bombers had a powerful radar and could also serve in the sub-hunting role.
• 5 De Haviland Mosquito FB Mk.VI fighter-bombers from Canada
• 3 AT-6 Texan armed trainers from Nicaragua’s Anastasio Somoza regime
• 2 civilianized B-17G Flying Fortress in the U.S. which were militarized so they could be used as strategic bombers. These aircraft provided Trujillo with a 3,000-km striking power.
• A fleet of 4 P-38L Lighting fighters and 3 F-5F3 recon versions were also acquired in the second hand civilian market, but these came with a group of U.S. WW2-veteran mercenaries.
On January 15, 1948, the National Army Aviation Corps became the Dominican Military Aviation Corps (AMD) through Presidential decree 4918, marking it’s independence from the Army. AMD became Trujillo’s favourite arm and received a considerable amount of the country’s defence budget.
Trujillo’s Agents managed to obtain a dozen North American P-51C/D/N Mustangs in the international market. Mustangs pilots were provided by a Brazilian Military Mission, considered by some historians as simple mercenaries. This Mission was originally contracted to teach combat tactics at the recently created Escuela de Aviación Militar (Military Aviation School), which received 14 AT-6 Texan, 18 BT-13 (ex-USN) and 12 PT-17’s.
The AMD’s had its combat debut on June 14, 1949, when a mixed flight made up of a Beaufighter and two Mosquitoes attacked a rebel PBY Catalina amphibian and two landing craft at Luperon Bay. The results of this strike remain unclear, but the FAERA certainly managed to mount an invasion force supported by 14 aircraft. This force and its aircraft were to find a very sad fate: bad weather caused four out of six PBYs that took off towards Dominican Republic to land in Mexico, and only one reached Puerto Plata, where it was almost immediately destroyed by FAD Mosquitoes and Beaufighters. The rebels that managed to reach Dominicana were decimated in subsequent FAD attacks and by the National Army.
Despite defeat, the rebels would not give up: in 1949 they became active in Haiti, and the FAD aircraft were sent into power demonstration flights over the country in response, as well as in order to keep the Haitian dictator "Papa Doc" from supporting the rebels. The attempted invasion and tensions with Haiti alerted Trujillo sufficiently for him to start an expansion of Dominican armed forces. In order to gain a sort of a rapid reaction force the AMD acquired five C-46 Commandos and UH-12 Raven helicopters, which were intended for use as transports for Trujillo’s troops.
|Dominican Republic purchased a total of 40 P-51D Mustangs from Sweden, in 1953. (Photo: Ole Niklajsen)|
The Golden Years
By the early 1950’s Trujillo’s government also started an ambitious expansion program, which included the construction of a dozen airbases and new combat equipment. Meanwhile, the AMD was in the process of purchasing 32 additional F-51D Mustang fighters from the Royal Swedish Air Force - through an arms brokering company named Interarmsco. These aircraft were in pristine condition, as they had been acquired by the Swedish government as a stop gap measure during and after WW2, but only saw little service. Besides, at least one of the Mustangs was modified into the S-26 reconnaissance version, as there are reports of an un-marked “black” Mustang that performed several secret reconnaissance flights over Venezuela a Cuba.
Original Dominican plans called for the acquisition of only 20 F-51D Mustang fighters from the USAF, together with a contract with an American company that would provide training and maintenance support for the fleet. With the US refusal to supply any aircraft, however, the AMD contracted a group of 12 Swedish mechanics that arrived in Santo Domingo together with ten additional ex-Swedish Mustangs, in 1953. The entire Mustang came at a price of $3.6 million.
|The Aviacion Militair Dominicana acquired 25 ex-Swedish Air Force J-28As (Vampire F.mk.1s) in 1955. These were serialled 2701 thru 2725 and served with the Escuadrón de Caza, at Trujillo AB, near San Isidro. The Dominicans modified them to a local fighter-bomber standard, through addition of indigenous electric bomb-release gear. (Artwork by Tom Cooper) |
The acquisitions from Sweden did not stop there, and 25 De Haviland Vampire F.Mk.1 fighters joined the Mustang’s of Escuadrón de Caza at Base Trujillo, San Isidro, becoming the country’s first jet fighters. 25 Landsverk L-60 light tanks and 13 Lynx armoured vehicles were also included in the deal, and these formed an armoured brigade that was directly subordinated to the Ministry of Defence, independent from the National Army. This brigade was based at Base Trujillo and was constantly associated with the AMD, which led to speculations that the AMD had “armoured flying squadrons”. There is photographic evidence to support this.
Despite the US refusal to supply Mustangs, Trujillo eventually obtained a licence to purchase 25 Republic F-47D Thunderbolt fighter-bombers from the US via a Military Assistance Program. They were grouped with the B-17G, B-25H and some AT-6 Texans in the Fighter-Bomber Squadron. Four C-47 transports also found their way into the AMD’s inventory, with one aircraft, a C-47D, specifically acquired for Trujillo’s personal transportation. However, when Trujillo asked to receive up to 25 North American F-86 Sabre fighter jets via the MAP, the US Congress denied its request.
|Despite US refusals to supply even piston-engined fighters designed at the times of the WWII to Dominican Republic, in the early 1950s, Trujillo obtained permission to buy 25 Republic F-47D Thunderbolt fighter-bombers. These entered service with the Fighter-Bomber Squadron, which operated several different flights, each of which marked its aircraft with specific colour - red, green, yellow, or blue - applied on engine cowlings, wing-tips and the top of the fins. (Artwork by Fabian Hinz)|
By 1955 the AMD had grown to include over 240 aircraft and 3,500 members: at the time it was certainly the most powerful air force in whole Central America and the Caribbean. A slight re-organization of assets included the creation of the “Escuadrón Ramfis” (Ramfis Squadron, in honor of Trujillos’ son, Ramfis Trujillo) and the fighter-bomber unit “Escuadrón Leonidas (in honour of dictator himself, Rafael “Leonidas” Trujillo). These units were far from being nominal squadrons, as the Ramfis outfit had no less but 140 aircraft on strength and Leonidas some 50.
With the negative US response to request for ex-USAF Sabre jets, and a US blockade of a shipment of 25 ex-JASDF (Japan Self Defence Air Force) F-86 Sabres to Dominicana, the AMD turned to Europe again for additional fighters and eventually acquired 17 DeHavilland Vampire FB. Mk.50s – again from Sweden. In accordance with the so-called “Monroe Doctrine”, namely, the USA had always been sensitive to supplying advanced weaponry to Latin American nations, and has undertaken numerous interventions to prevent import of these in the area. But, Trujillo’s ambitions were more than the USA could stop at the time: soon enough his agents began negotiations with the civilian company Florida Aerocessories Inc. to buy 12 ex-USAF Douglas B-26B Invaders. According to the export license, the Invaders were to be used as “trainers”, but when the order was expanded to 16 aircraft, the US government blocked this sale, and several others being negotiated by the Dominican Intelligence Service. Trujillo’s agents, masquerading as Chilean businessmen, nevertheless managed to obtain five Douglas A-26B Invaders from Manhattan Industries. The aircraft were to be used on cartographic missions in Chile, but instead, in 1964 they landed at San Isidro air base during their delivery flight to Chile, where they were “impounded” by the Dominican government, militarized and pressed into AMD service. Very slowly, Washington became concerned about the developments in the Dominicana and from 1957 different US services were flying reconnaissance missions in the area. In July 1957, for example, a USN R4D-1 was intercepted by three AMD F-51D Mustangs and forced to land in the Dominican Republic. In March 1959 another USN F4D-1 was intercepted by AMD Mustangs – which even opened fire when the patrol aircraft refused to follow them. Soon enough, therefore the USA found themselves in a situation of supporting Dominican rebels, even if not undertaking any direct steps against Trujilo: on the contrary, the flow of spares and even additional equipment from the USA to the Dominican Republic was not interrupted for a number of years to come.
|In 1955, the (meanwhile almost legendary) US arms dealing company Interarms brokered a deal with Swedish aircraft broker, Henry Wallenberg, for supply of 25 ex-Swedish Air Force Vampire F.Mk.1s to the right-wing government of the Dominican Republic. The examples seen in this row, photographed at Trujillo AB, wear the insignia of the Escuadrón de Caza - a moskito carrying a yellow bomb, applied on a field in light grey, outlinned in Dominican national colours. (Photo: Ole Niklajsen)|
Restructure and Deja-vu
The FAD’s first helicopters came in the shape of two Sikorsky UH-19’s, which enabled the service to undertake SAR missions. In 1957 also a Westland-built version was acquired to expand SAR coverage.
Financial difficulties forced the combat fleet to be restructured: the P-47D’s were withdrawn from service in 1958, with some being sold to Nicaragua; Beaufighters, Boeing B-17Gs, DeHavilland Mosquitoes and PBY Catalinas were all retired. Training aircraft such as the PT-17 and Vultee BT-13 were scrapped, but acquisition of T-6 Texans continued and eventually no less but 87 aircraft of several different versions were supplied to different AMD units.
Ten years after the first attempt, on 14 June 1959, Dominican exiles tried to invade the island and overthrow Trujillo. Trujillo’s forces crushed the rebels and began a major modernization program based mainly on acquisition of French equipment. While AMX-13 light tanks and Alouette helicopters joined the Dominican ranks, however, a deal for an undisclosed number of Dassault Mirage III fighter-bombers was never reached, even if a group of Dominican pilots had received training on the type in France.
The Swedish personnel that maintained the Vampire and Mustang fleet left the country in May 1960; this marked the beginning of the end for the Dominican Aviation’s Golden Age. Trujillo, who bragged about his ability to bomb Havana within three hours or overrun Haiti in a single day, began to loose in significance and power. Eventually, on 31 May 1961, he was assassinated in a CIA-supported operation.
|After their request for additional J-28As was turned down due to non-availability of remaining airframes, in 1957 the Dominicans ordered a batch of 17 surplus ex-Swedish Air Force J-28Bs (Vampire FB.Mk.50). These fighter-bombers were operated alongside original J-28As until 1974, and saw combat not only on Cuba, in 1959, but also during the Civil War in Dominican Republic, in 1965. The Dominican J-28Bs appear not to have worn the insignia of the Escuadron de Caza ever, and their serial were also applied in a much less obvious manner than this was the case with J-28As - in black on fin. (Artwork by Tom Cooper)|
El Presidente ha Muerto!
With Trujillo gone, a new government headed by Baldaguer came to power. The AMD, a symbol of Trujillo’s fascist dictatorship was re-structured and changed its name to Fuerza Aérea Dominicana (FAD) following the Presidential Decree 7222. In 1962 Balaguer was replaced by Juan Bosch, who refused to pursue the Dominican left wing parties and was overthrown – after being declared “left wing” – by a military coup in September 1963. A Military Junta, at the hands of General Donald Reid Cabral assumed power.
The US State Department supported such a move and decided to strengthen the Dominican military as a counterweight to growing communist presence in the Caribbean. It encouraged the upgrade of the remaining Mustangs by Trans-Florida Aviation, which had acquired all rights on F-51D Mustang modifications. Trans-Florida agreed to accept four examples and modernize the remaining 27 machines. The surviving AT-6 Texans were also modified to fire rockets. The US 7th Special Forces Group started training a new Dominican Special Forces Corp.
By 1963 the FAD had been reduced to 110 flying aircraft (down from 240 only eight years before), organized into one bomber and two fighter squadrons. The 1st Commando Group was declared operational this year and the FAD also received a T-28A Trojan through MAP for evaluation. Results were positive, and three additional examples were obtained for the Military Aviation School, the type eventually being selected to replace all the T-6s. Not all the Dominican T-28s came from the USA: three French-built Sud Aviation T-28S Fennec examples, modified to carry machine guns and equipped with powerful engines taken from B-17G bombers, were obtained as well.
|Dominican Republic Air Force P-51Ds are known to have been equipped with rocket rails for ground attack missions. They were flown by the Escuadron de Caza, and participated in fighting against the rebels that overthrew the civil junta, in 1965, flying from the San Isidro airbase. (Photo: Ole Niklajsen)|
In April 1965 the Military Junta was overthrown during a revolt in San Domingo, and a struggle for power begun between forces loyal to Juan Bosch (“Constitucionalistas”), who supported the 1963 Constitution (considered the most liberal and progressive Constitution in Dominican history) and forces loyal to Generals Wessin y Wessin and Barrera.
The Constitucionalistas took control of the National Palace but soon came under fierce counterattacks from Junta’s troops. Brig.Gen. Wessin, namely, remained in control of the San Isidro AB, and was swift to organize retaliation, dispatching a number of Mustangs, Vampires, and B-26s to hit the opposition. There are reports that also indicate that a pair of Mosquitoes were used to bomb rebel Constitucionalista positions. Rebel anti-aircraft fire claimed two aircraft, although FAD admitted the loss of only one Mustang shot down, and other damaged – but managing to land at Trujillo AB.
Fearing a possible Communist intervention, the USA meanwhile prepared an intervention force, centred on helicopter carriers USS Okinawa (LPH-3) and USS Boxer (LPH-4), as well as a number of ships of the 2nd US Fleeet and 21.000 troops. Originally, Washington explained that these troops would be sent to Dominican Republic to cover the evacuation of foreign citizens, but eventually this operation became not only significant for a number of important lessons about use of helicopters and troops in interventions of this type, but the US Marines also became directly involved in the fighting on Junta’s side. In fact, by May 1965 over 90% of all USAF transport aircraft were engaged in supporting the intervention in Dominicana.
The fighting died away in June, when a cease-fire was negotiated by OAS, which subsequently deployed 2.000 peacekeepers from Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Honduras and Brazil. Belaguer was restored in power, in 1966. By the time over 2.000 Dominican civilians were killed and 3.000 injured, in addition to 800 Dominican troops. The USA also suffered 24 dead and 164 wounded.
Wholesale to America
Once the new government was in office, the FAD was completely re-structured: all combat assets, including 15 Vampires, 20 AT-6 Texans, and 24 Mustangs, were grouped into “Dragones Verdes” (Green Dragons), a USAF-trained COIN outfit.
The remaining four A-26B Invader bombers were put on sale, but their hybrid nature prevented them from being sold to military operators, they were scrapped in 1968. US advisors recommended that ten of the surviving Mustangs would be completely refurbished by Cavalier, heir to Trans-Florida Aviation. The Sikorsky helicopters were retired in 1969, leaving SAR coverage to the less well-suited Alouette and Lama light helicopters.
During the next two decades, the US became the main source of equipment for FAD, mainly through a Military Assistance Mission. This Mission shaped the FAD into an effective counter-insurgency force, mainly with aircraft that had proven in Vietnam:
• In 1971 MAP provided six OH-6A Cayuse light helicopters armed with mini-guns and rocket launchers.
• In 1972 a batch of eight T-41D Mescalero light aircraft were delivered, to be used as FAC for Cayuses, Mustangs and Texans in a low intensity campaign against guerrilla groups. These aircraft were also used against Colonel Caamaño, a highly exaggerated “invasion” of ten men disembarked in Caracol beach after arriving from Cuba.
• There are reports of a C-47 transport being modified to a configuration similar to AC-47. This aircraft should have taken a part in the operation against Caamaño, but there are no formal records of its service with the FAD.
The British Hawker Hunter was selected by the FAD to replace its existing De Haviland Vampire fighters. A requirement for 25 Hunters existed, but it never turned into an order. In 1974 the last 12 Vampires were retired, leaving the FAD without any operational fighter jets.
By 1978 the FAD had been reduced to 80 aircraft, one third of the strength it had 20 years before. It was organized into one COIN squadron with the remaining Mustangs, T-41D’s, OH-6A’s Texans and Fennecs, one transport squadron with the old C-46 Commando and C-47 transports, one light helicopter squadron with Alouette and Lamas and the Military Aviation School equipped with a few Texan and Trojans. A slight expansion of its COIN capability came with seven civilian Bell 205A-1 that were bought and militarized by Bell Helicopters in Texas.
The next FAD re-structure took place during the mid-1980’s, and saw acquisition of new combat-, patrol- and training aircraft.
After several Cuban MiGs humiliated the FAD, playing and taunting with the old Mustangs off the Dominican coast, the government requested US assistance. The A-37B Dragonfly attack jet was the only model cleared for the FAD, and suitable fighters, such as the supersonic F-5E Tiger II was not offered. However, the Dragonfly would go on to replace the tired Mustangs in the COIN and light attack role, with eight aircraft delivered. The Dominican Dragonflies had its first operational intercept in 1985, when one shot down a Beechcraft D-18 during an anti-narcotic operation.
The original requirement was for up to 16 Dragonflies, but only the first batch was delivered. Instead, the FAD received eight Cessna O-2A observation aircraft. The O-2’s were pressed into service on border patrol, reconnaissance and coastal patrol, armed with machine guns and rocket launchers.
In 1984 the FAD retired its last surviving F-51D Mustangs – the last Mustangs in military service in the world, managing to sell these operational museum pieces at around $300,000 each. Ironically, the total sum collected for them was close to $3.6 million – almost the same figure spent for the 42-aircraft fleet acquired more than 30 years earlier.
The Military Aviation School simplified its training syllabus by replacing its remaining T-28 Trojans, T-6 Texans (some speculate even a few Vampires) with a dozen T-34B Mentor basic trainers previously own by the US Navy.
In 1986 the US Government suspended its foreign military aid program to the Dominican Republic, eventually cancelling it completely in 1988. This was a terrible blow to the FAD, limiting its operations to the anti-narcotic support role and its flying inventory went down to 45 aircraft by the mid 1990’s.
Although the actual FAD is merely a shadow of the 1950’s AMD, it has taken a series of re-equipment decisions while making the best use of its limited budget:
• Choppers – Used and New
In 1994 the US Government donated six ex-US Army UH-1H Iroquois helicopters. They replaced the “militarized” Bell 205’s, which were sold in 1998 to a Canadian company. The new UH-1H’s were designated for SAR as their primary role.
Up to ten new light helicopters were required, with the Eurocopter AS-350B Ecureuil as the favourite to replace the surviving Alouette and Lamas. But the Eurocopter deal was put on hold, after four Schweizer 333 helicopters arrived in December 2003. In 2004 the FAD received four ex-Canadian Armed Forces Bell 206A-1 (CH-136 Kiowa) light helicopters through Coastal Helicopters, an aircraft broker, with which the Eurocopter deal was cancelled.
• The Spaniards
The FAD’s remaining C-47 transports were replaced by new C-212 Aviocar 400’s in 1998. The Aviocar’s were tasked with general transport duties as web as international relief missions. A Cessna 206 was also acquired for light transport missions.
• Latin Flavor – Denied
After a series of accidents, the A-37B attack-fighter fleet was reduced to two flying examples, and the unit responsible for operating them since 1984, the Dragones Squadron was de-activated in March 2001. The main reason behind the deactivation was the high cost of only having a two-aircraft fleet in service.
The FAD selected the EMB-314 Super Tucano as its future combat aircraft, tasked with border patrol, anti-narcotic, advanced training and anti-terrorist operations. An order for 10 Super Tucanos was announced, however US pressure to choose a US-built aircraft such as the armed AT-6 Texan II caused negotiations to stall.
• Surprise from the South
Eight former Chilean Air Force T-35B Pillan basic trainers entered service in 2001, replacing the remaining T-34B Mentors, which were sold to civilian collectors in the U.S. The Military Aviation School has outlined the requirement for 4 advanced trainers, identifying the EMB-312 Tucano as its preferred option. There is also a requirement for up to five EMB-202 Ipanema agricultural planes.
• New Services
The “Escuadrón de Caballería Aérea” (Air Cavalry Squadron) was created in October 2002 as air service subordinated directly to the Army HQ. This new unit received three Robinson R-22 and one R-44 light helicopters, and a Cessna 207 that had been acquired directly by the National Army in April 2000. By 2003 additional R-22 and R-44 helicopters had been received.
This unit’s main strength will come from eight upgraded UH-1H Huey II assault helicopters, that will form the air component of the Army’s new airborne battalion. Some sources state that the actual number is for 12 helicopters, in a military assistance package approved by the US Congress in 2002 that also includes 20,000 M-16 rifles. In March 2003 this unit received 8 ex-US Army OH-58A Kiowa light observation helicopters and the total expected delivery will be up to 12.
The Dominican Navy tried to acquire three ex-US Navy SH-3D Sea Kings, to be used in the SAR role, in the same way the Sikorsky UH-19’s were used from 1957 to 1969. However, these plans were cancelled after several years of negotiations and it settled for an OH-58C Kiowa, delivered in October 2003. A further two examples were later delivered.
* FUERZA AÉREA DOMINICANA (Air Force)
1 Aérospatiale AS-365N Dauphin II (VIP transport)
1 Aérospatiale SE 3130 Alouette II (training)
4 Bell CH-136 Kiowa (observation)
3 Bell UH-1H Iroquois (transport)
3 CASA C-212 Aviocar 400 (transport)
2 Cessna T-41D Mescalero (observation)
1 Cessna 206 Skywagon (liaison)
7 ENAER T-35B Pillan (basic training / patrol)
1 Hughes OH-6A Cayuse (training)
1 Piper PA-31 Navajo (liaison)
4 Schweizer 333 (patrol / training)
* EJÉRCITO NACIONAL (National Army)
4 Bell OH-58A Kiowa (patrol / SAR)
4 Bell OH-58C Kiowa (patrol / SAR)
8 Bell UH-1H Huey Mk.II (transport)
1 Cessna 207 Stationair (transport)
4 Robinson R-22 (patrol /observation)
2 Robinson R-44 Raven (patrol / training)
* MARINA DE GUERRA (Navy)
3 Bell OH-58C Kiowa (SAR)2
* POLICÍA NACIONAL (National Police)
1 Bell OH-58A Kiowa (patrol)
1 Cessna 172 Mescalero (patrol)
Sources & Bibliography
- "AIR WARS AND AIRCRAFT; A Detailed Record of Air Combat, 1945 to the Present", by Victor Flintham, Arms and Armour Press, 1989 (ISBN: 0-85368-779-X)
- "Profile Publications" series, Profile Publications Ltd., Leatherhead, Surrey, from the late 1960s and early 1970s.
- Ian Allan "At War", "Postwar Military Aircraft", and "Modern Combat Aircraft" series
- THE ARMS BAZAAR, by Anthony Sampson, Hodder and Stoughton, 1977 (ISBN: 3-498-06118-6)
- "LATIN-AMERICAN MILITARY AVIATION, by J.M. Andrade, Midland Counties Publications, 1982
- NORTH AMERICAN F-51 MUSTANG IN LATIN AMERICAN AIR FORCE SERVICE, by J. Dienst & D. Hagerdon, Aerofax, 1985
- ENCYCLOPEAEDIA OF THE WORLD'S AIR FORCES, by Michael J.H. Taylor, Multimedia Books Ltd., 1988 (ISBN: 1-85260-135-3)
- THE PENGUIN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MODERN WARFARE, by Kenneth Macksey & William Woodhouse, Penguin Group, 1991 (ISBN: 0-670-82698-7)
- WORLD'S AIR FORCES, by John Pacco, JP Publications, 1992 (ISBN: 90-801136-1-1)
- AEROSPACE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF WORLD AIR FORCES, edited by David Willis, Aerospace Publishing, 1999 (ISBN: 1-86184-045-4)
- Different reports about Dominican Air Force published in Österreichische Militärzeitschift; various volumes since 1956.
- Mustangsmustangs Website
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Central and Latin America Database
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|Aztec Rotors - Helicopters of Mexican Air Force|
|Fuerza Aerea Colombiana|
|Forca Aerea Brasileira|
|Drug-Busting Operations Air-to-Air Victories|
|Central & South American Air-to-Air Victories|
|Cuban Air-to-Air Victories|
|Peru vs. Ecuador; Alto-Cenepa War, 1995|
|Venezuelan Coup Attempt, 1992|
|Panama, 1989; Operation "Just Cause" |
|Grenada, 1983: Operation "Urgent Fury"|
|El Salvador, 1980-1992|
|El Salvador vs Honduras, 1969: The 100-Hour War|
|Cuban Crisis, 1962: ORBATs and OPLANs|
|Clandestine US Operations: Cuba, 1961, Bay of Pigs|
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|Costa Rican Civil Wars: 1948 & 1955|
|Dominican Republic since 1945|